Sterilization and Disinfection Nursing lecture

This nursing lecture contains different sterilization and disinfection methods. It also compares the two and cites disadvantages and advantages.

# Terminologies  Antiseptics  Disinfectants  Disinfection  Microorganism  Pathogenic Microorganisms  Sterilization
# Methods of Sterilization  A. Physical Sterilization 1. Moist Heat – kills all bacteria by coagulating or denaturing of the protein of the bacteria a. Boiling (non-pressure sterilizer) b. Saturated Steam under pressure (AUTOCLAVE)

#  2. Dry Heat – recommended for use only where direct contact of material with steam is impractical of not available a. Dry Heat Autoclave (hot air oven) – used for oil, ointment, and powders.
#  B. Chemical Sterilization  Accomplished by use of ethylene oxide gas  Ethylene oxide is a chemical agent that kills microorganisms, including spores, by interfering with the normal metabolism of protein and reproductive processes, resulting in death of cells
# Shelf-Life  1. Condition of Storage  Free of dust, dirt and vermin  Paper-wrapped/muslin-wrapped items good for 30 days, open shelving 21 days  Protect from extreme temperature
#  2. Material used for packaging  Muslin and paper wrapped items may be stored for 24-30 days, afterwhich re- sterilization is required, but if sealed in airtight plastic bag, following cooling or aerating, shelf life can be prolonged from 6-12 months
#  3. Seal of the package  Tape sealed packages wrapped in non- warm fabrics or plastic film can be stored for 3-4 months  4. Integrity of the package
# Disinfection  It differs from Sterilization by its lack of sporocidal power  Used in the OR to kill microorganisms on inanimate surfaces and objects that cannot be sterilized
# Limitations of Chemical Disinfection  Doesn’t KILL SPORES  Real STRENGTH not known  LONG TIMING  DIFFICULT to submerge some articles  NOT SUITABLE for some materials  Can cause IRRITATION to tissue  ABILITY to disinfect is limited to max concentration
# Uses for chemical disinfection  WOVEN  CATHETER  ENDOSCOPIC Instruments  POLYETHYLENE  EYE Surgery
# Pointers when Using Chemical Disinfection  Free from blood, secretions  Rinse and dry under sterile conditions  Solutions may be rinsed off if practical
# DISINFECTANTS  Formaldehyde (Formalin)  Glutaraldehyde (Cidex)  Phenol 100%  Lysol  Zephiran Chloride 17%
# ANTISEPTICS  Hexacholorophene - neurotoxic  Betadine –watch out iodine sensitivity  Mercurochrome  Aqueous Zephiran  Chorhexidine Gluconate

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